The hexagonal unit cell of graphitic carbon consists of a planar arrangement of sp² hybridized carbon with \mathrm{p_Z} orbitals pointing out of the plane.

The correct synthesis and identification of new materials is the key to more thorough analyses. In this chapter I will give a historical introduction to the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and in the further course concentrate on the here chosen synthesis technique for fabricating samples with small diameters. I will then introduce the microscopic setup that was developed to perform a spectroscopic investigation of molecular adsorption and desorption from individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The adsorption processes have been grouped into Adsorption of Gas, Adsorption of Liquid, and Adsorption of Solid.